Brighton Main Line
|Brighton Main Line|
|Principal stations (from north to south)
The Brighton Main Line is the British railway line from London Victoria and London Bridge to Brighton. The route is approximately 50 miles (80 km) in length. It is operated by Southern and First Capital Connect and is electrified throughout. Several other operators Gatwick Express, South Eastern Trains and Virgin Cross Country also operate on certain parts of the route.
History of the line
There were no fewer than six original proposals to build a railway between London and Brighton: the London and Brighton Railway (L&BR) emerged with an Act of Parliament of 15 July 1837. The scheme was to build a line from a junction with the London and Croydon Railway (L&CR) (with its terminus at London Bridge) to Brighton, with two branches: one to Newhaven, the other to Shoreham-by-Sea.
Opening took place as follows:
- 12 May 1840: Brighton to Shoreham-by-Sea (all the materials for the line having arrived by sea.)
- 12 July 1841: Norwood Junction, London (L&CR) to Haywards Heath.
- 21 September 1841: the final section from Haywards Heath to Brighton.
The Newhaven section did not materialise until 1846, when the Brighton - Hastings line opened. Also in 1846 the L&CR and L&BR amalgamated; the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) came into being. In 1860 the line between London Victoria and Balham opened, and the Brighton Main Line was completed in 1862.
In the early days, the LB&SCR and the South Eastern Railway (SER) had been forced by an Act of Parliament to share the route southwards from London as far as Redhill. This caused a great deal of friction, since Redhill was an SER station, and quarrels broke out between the two companies to the extent that the LB&SCR built an avoiding line between Coulsdon North and Earlswood which became known as the Quarry Line, still used by fast trains avoiding Redhill. It was opened on 8 November 1899 (1 April 1900 for passenger traffic).
The LB&SCR began electrification of its lines on 1 December 1909 when its South London Line was equipped with high-tension single-phase system with overhead conductors; within three years many more of its suburban services were converted. After the 1923 grouping the main line as far as Coulsdon North came into use using overhead conductors, but the new Southern Railway had by now decided upon the third-rail system, as adopted by another of its constituents, the London and South Western Railway. In 1928/29 the entire network was converted to third rail operation, and subsequent conversion followed on that basis. The third rail system is electrified at 750V DC and underwent a recent power supply upgrade prior to the introduction of the new Electrostar stock operated by Southern
Dates of electrification were are follows:
- 12 May 1911: Victoria – Balham – (Crystal Palace)
- June 1912: Balham – Selhurst
- 1 April 1925: Selhurst – Coulsdon North
- July 1932: Coulsdon North – Three Bridges
- 1 January 1933: Three Bridges – Brighton (and also to West Worthing)
There are now many more trains from Victoria to Brighton than from London Bridge: a reversal of the original services. The line is four-tracked, except along the Quarry Line, the section through the Balcombe Tunnel between Three Bridges and Haywards Heath, and from Haywards Heath to Preston Park which passes through Clayton Tunnel south of Hassocks.
The fastest services from Brighton to Victoria stop only at East Croydon and Clapham Junction, though some "express" services also call at Gatwick Airport. First Capital Connect services from Brighton to London Bridge using the Thameslink route continue across London to Blackfriars, City Thameslink, Farringdon and King's Cross, and then on to Luton and Bedford. (Southern Trains services to London Bridge do not continue north of the River Thames.)
From Victoria, the following other services use the Line, but branch off where shown:
- the South London Line to London Bridge
- at Balham, where the line via Crystal Palace diverges
- at South Croydon, the Oxted Line
- at Purley, the Caterham and Tattenham Corner Lines
- at Redhill, the branch to Reigate and the North Downs Line to the west; and the Tonbridge line to the east
- at Three Bridges, the Arun Valley Line services to Portsmouth; here was also the line to East Grinstead, closed 1967
- at Haywards Heath, the line via Horsted Keynes, closed 28 October 1963: part now the Bluebell Railway
- at Wivelsfield, the East Coastway Line to Eastbourne and Hastings via Lewes
- at Preston Park, the West Coastway Line service to Littlehampton, avoiding Brighton
- at Brighton the West Coastway Line; and the line to Lewes via Falmer